What is it?
Children at risk of exploitation (CRE) includes any child at risk of suffering from any form of exploitation. CRE is split in to two main forms of exploitation: Child Sexual Exploitation (CSE), and Child Criminal Exploitation (CCE). There are similarities between the two forms of exploitation and they may overlap, with victims of child exploitation often subjected to both sexual and criminal exploitation. There are also similarities between CRE and other forms of exploitation, such as extremism and radicalisation, modern slavery, and serious violence, including gang violence.
Sexual exploitation of children and young people under 18 involves exploitative situations, contexts and relationships where young people (or a third person or persons) receive ‘something’ (e.g. food, accommodation, drugs, alcohol, cigarettes, affection, gifts, money) as a result of them performing, and/or another or others performing on them, sexual activities. Child sexual exploitation can occur through the use of technology without the child’s immediate recognition; for example, being persuaded to post sexual images on the Internet/mobile phones without immediate payment or gain. In all cases, those exploiting the child/young person have power over them by virtue of their age, gender, intellect, physical strength and/or economic or other resources. Violence, coercion and intimidation are common, with involvement in exploitative relationships being characterised in the main by the child or young person’s limited availability of choice resulting from their social/economic and/or emotional vulnerability.
Criminal exploitation of children and young people under the age of 18 tends to involve an individual or group taking advantage of an imbalance of social, economic or emotional power to manipulate, control or deceive a child into committing criminal activities. The child or young person may receive ‘something’ (e.g. food, accommodation, drugs, alcohol, cigarettes, affection, gifts, money) in exchange for the criminal activity committed, and so the child may have been criminally exploited even if the activity appears to be consensual. Child criminal exploitation does not require physical contact, and may have been facilitated through the use of technology. Common examples of CCE include, but are not limited to, coercing children to steal or involving children in County Lines drugs networks, which often use children and young people to move and store drugs and money using coercion, intimidation and (sometimes sexual) violence.
What are the signs?
• going missing for periods of time or regularly returning home late
• skipping school or being disruptive in class
• appearing with unexplained gifts or possessions that can’t be accounted for
• experiencing health problems that may indicate a sexually transmitted infection
• having mood swings and changes in temperament
• using drugs and/or alcohol
• displaying inappropriate sexualised or criminalised behaviour, such as over-familiarity with strangers, changes to the way the person dresses (dressing in a sexualised manner for example) or sending sexualised images by mobile phone ("sexting")
• They may also show signs of unexplained physical harm, such as bruising and cigarette burns
How to report it?
In an emergency situation, always dial 999. To report a crime in any other circumstances, contact police on the non-emergency number 101. Alternatively, you can contact any of the organisations below.
The Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011 provides powers for the Police and Crime Commissioner to award grants to any organisation or body he considers will support the community safety priorities within his police and crime plan, such as tackling drugs and crime, reducing re-offending and providing support for victims and witnesses.
From January 2020 Catch22 has been commissioned by the Office of the Police and Crime Commissioner for Derbyshire, Derby City Council and Derbyshire County Council to protect and support children and young people vulnerable to CRE in Derby and across Derbyshire. They deliver bespoke support and interventions to children and young people to build resilience and aspiration, empowering them to take control of their lives and supporting them to stay safe.